Sustainability | Free Full-Text | PV Monitoring System for a Water Pumping Scheme with a Lithium-Ion Battery Using Free Open-Source Software and IoT Technologies

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The event of photovoltaic (PV) know-how is now a actuality. The inclusion of lithium-ion batteries in grid-connected PV methods is rising, and the sharp drop in costs for these batteries will allow their use in purposes resembling PV water pumping schemes (PVWPS). A technical answer for the monitoring and monitoring of PV methods is proven on this work, and a novel quasi-real-time monitoring system for a PVWPS with a Li-ion battery is proposed through which open-source Web of Issues (IoT) instruments are used. The aim of the monitoring system is to offer a great tool for the operation, administration, and improvement of those amenities. The experimental facility used to check the monitoring system features a 2.four kWpk photovoltaic discipline, a 3.6 kVA hybrid inverter, a 3.Three kWh/Three kW lithium-ion battery, a 2.2 kVA variable velocity driver, and a 1.5 kW submersible pump. To deal with this examine, knowledge acquisition is carried out utilizing business {hardware} options that talk utilizing a Modbus-RTU protocol over an RS485 bus and open software program. A Raspberry Pi is used within the knowledge gateway stage, together with a PM2 free open-source course of supervisor to extend the robustness and reliability of the monitoring system. Information storage is carried out in a server utilizing InfluxDB for open-source database storage and Grafana as open-source knowledge visualization software program. Information processing is complemented with a configurable knowledge exporter program that allows customers to pick out and duplicate the information saved in InfluxDB. Excel or .csv recordsdata might be created that embody the specified variables with an outlined time interval and with the specified knowledge granularity. Lastly, the preliminary outcomes of the monitoring system are offered, and the potential makes use of of the acquired knowledge and potential customers of the system are recognized and described.
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