Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Characteristics of Non-Smokers’ Exposure Using Indirect Smoking Indicators and Time Activity Patterns


For the reason that international enforcement of smoke-free insurance policies, indoor smoking has decreased considerably, and the traits of non-smokers’ publicity to secondhand smoke (SHS) has modified. The aim of this research was to evaluate the temporal and spatial traits of SHS publicity in non-smokers by combining questionnaires and biomarkers with time exercise patterns. To evaluate SHS publicity, biomarkers equivalent to cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-3-(pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in urine and nicotine in hair have been collected from 100 non-smokers in Seoul. Questionnaires about SHS publicity and time exercise patterns have been additionally obtained from the individuals. The evaluation of biomarker samples indicated that about 10% of individuals have been uncovered to SHS when put next with the standards from earlier research. Nonetheless, 97% of the individuals reported that they have been uncovered to SHS at the very least as soon as weekly. The individuals have been most uncovered to SHS within the outside microenvironment, the place they spent roughly 1.2 h each day. There was a big correlation between the individuals’ time spent outside and self-reported SHS publicity time (r2 = 0.935). On this research, a technique utilizing time exercise patterns to evaluate temporal and spatial traits of SHS publicity was urged. The outcomes of this research could assist develop insurance policies for managing SHS publicity, contemplating the time exercise patterns.
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